miércoles, 27 de agosto de 2014

From Quark to Quasar: The Observable Universe


If you really want a headache (the good kind), take a long look at this “photo”. No, this is not a photo of the cosmic microwave background radiation (which you can actually see for yourself if you change your television channel to one of the “fuzzy” stations), neither is it a collection of graphs of a cell structure. So, instead of telling you what it isn’t, how about I tell you what it is? This is, well… everything. Everything we cansee and observe anyway. What you’re looking at is a map of known galaxies and superclusters in the “observable” universe, with the gaps that lie between the structures contributing to the map’s cell-like structure. These gaps, or voids, are regions of space completely lacking in stars, galaxies, and clusters. The largest of these gaps (the Eridanus supervoid) is almost one billion light-years in totality.
You and I, and all the things we’ve ever known, are smack in the middle of this image, along with our Local group (which is a part of the largerVirgo Supercluster).
Since the speed of light is a constant in the vacuum of space, from our location on Earth, there is an outer edge to what is we can see in the cosmos. This is known as the “observable universe,” and it is defined by a spherical boundary the stretches out from the Earth in all directions. The horizon of this boundary is about 46–47 billion light-years away from the center of the Earth, which means that the observable universe  iscloser to 93 billion light-years across. Of course, the universe is only estimated to be 13.7 billion years old. And as a “light-year” is the distance that light can travel in a year, how could the observable universe be 93 billion light-years across? Logically, light wouldn’t even have time to travel more than 13.7 billion light-years.
It seems confusing, but there is a simple explanation: the universe has expanded in all directions since the big bang.  In this sense, the objects that are on the edge of the observable universe were once far closer to us than they are now. Moreover, since it has taken light from these objects so long to reach us, what we see at these far reaches are literally some of the earliest stars and galaxies in the young universe. In fact, it’s quite likely that many of the stars that we are currently observing are no longer alive, and that a new batch has cropped up in their place. Moreover, this new batch will likely be in another location entirely… and red-shifted out of our view forever due to the expansion of the universe.
Observable Universe #1
This diagram shows how Earth’s observable universe compares to other  places in space (Image via Nina)
Since the universe has been expanding indefinitely since the big bang, the number of objects seen in the observable universe will shorten with time; it will appear as if the universe is much smaller (and darker) than it currently is. Ultimately, the universe will seem darker because, as objects travel farther away from us at ever increasing speeds, their light will not have the proper amount of time to reach us. This expansion, which (as mentioned) is going on in every direction, is also the reason why our solar system appears to lie in the middle of the observable universe. In fact, there is no defined “center.”
Every inhabited planet circling a distant star will look out into the universe and they will see that the universe is expanding away from them, giving them the impression that they are located right smack in the center of it all. So next time someone tells you that you are not the center of the universe…
The “observable” universe is thought to consist of roughly:
-*10 million superclusters
- *25 billion galaxy groups
- *350 billion large galaxies
- *7 trillion dwarf galaxies
- *30 billion trillion (3X10^22) stars
(of which, almost 30 stars go supernova per second)
According to some math (that I have no desire to go into), if you scale the size of the observable universe (all 93 billion light-years of it) down to the nucleus of a single atom (the nucleus is quite small compared to the atom itself) the total universe would be about the size of the atom itself. Thus, the total universe is 10 billion times larger than the size of the observable. I know that was a bit hard to comprehend, but read it a few times and the overwhelming magnitude of it all will sink in.
Click on the image to see a larger version
Click on the image to see a larger version
Keep in mind that it’s impossible for us to know the exact size of the unobservable universe, so the above is an estimation. It could be, and much likely is, much larger than that. It is also quite difficult to put an exact number on the stars, galaxies, clusters, and superclusters contained within the observable universe. In fact, a recent study has suggested that, for each galaxy observed at the horizon between the observable and unobservable universe, there may be hundreds still waiting to be found. So basically, the universe is much larger than we mere mortals are capable of comprehending (and probably a lot larger than that too), but seeing images like these always prove to be sufficient in humbling each of us in a way nothing else can.
Want to explore the observable universe from quark to quasar? Click here.
Perspective via Meta Picture